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Learning Environment Design Framework
Instructional Design Toolkit

ISD Concept Map
ISD Concept Map

Robert Gagnè

In 1962 when Robert Gagnè published Military Training and Principles of Learning he demonstrated a concern for the different levels of learning. His differentiation of psychomotor skills, verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, and attitudes provides a companion to Bloom's Taxonomy. In 1965, his book, The Conditions of Learning and the Theory of Instruction, extended his thinking to include nine instructional events that detail the conditions necessary for learning to occur. These events are still important for the basis for the design of instruction and the selection of appropriate media:

  1. Gain attention
  2. Tell learners the learning objective
  3. Stimulate recall
  4. Present the stimulus, content
  5. Provide guidance, relevance, and organization
  6. Elicit the learning by demonstrating it
  7. Provide feedback on performance
  8. Assess performance, give feedback and reinforcement
  9. Enhance retention and transfer to other contexts

Gagnè also distinguished eight different classes of situations in which human beings learn:

For more information, see Robert Gagnè's Nine Steps of Instruction.

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