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Knowledge Map
Knowledge Map


Ikujiro Nonaka & Hirotaka Takeuk - The Knowledge Spiral - 1995

Nonaka and Takeuk's highly influential book, The Knowledge Creating Company (1995) is released. Their spiral process theory of knowledge creation is based upon a spiral movement between explicit and tacit knowledge.

The Knowledge Spiral

Nonaka and Takeuk theorized that the creation of knowledge is the result of a continuous cycle of four integrated processes: externalization, internalization, combination, and socialization. These four knowledge conversion mechanisms are mutually complementary and interdependent that change according to the demands of context and sequence:

THe Spiral of Knowledge Creation

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