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Learning Environment Design Framework
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ISD Concept Map
ISD Concept Map


Eduard C. Lindeman

In 1926, the first book explaining the unique characteristics of adult learners was published, The Meaning of Adult Education. Lindeman suggests that education evolves from situations and not subjects and that this is the essence of adult education.

Lindeman wrote:

. . . the teacher finds a new function. He is no longer the oracle who speaks from the platform of authority, but rather the guide, the pointer-outer who also participates in learning in proportion to the vitality and relevancy of his facts and experiences.

Lindeman based his work on both being an adult learner and being a teacher of adults. Some of his key assumptions about adult learners include:

Andragogy is based upon Lindeman's adult learning theories.

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