Learning, Training, and Human Performance Glossary

Words beginning with the letter “T” are listed below. For words starting with a different letter, use the below table:

S T U V W X Y Z Acronyms

tabletop analysis

Using a facilitator, a small group (3-10) of subject matter experts convene to identify the various tasks to be performed. Through brainstorming and consensus building, the team develops a sequential list of tasks. Following this process, the team determines which tasks should be trained. Task selection is based on the frequency, difficulty, criticality and the consequences of error or poor performance.

target population

The total collection of a population that is scheduled to enter a given instructional program.


The smallest essential part of a job. A unit of work activity that is a logical and necessary action in the performance of a job. It can be described in simple terms. Has an identifiable start and end point and results in a measurable accomplishment or product.

task analysis

Involves the systematic process of identifying specific tasks to be trained; and a detailed analysis of each of those tasks. Task analysis information can be used as the foundation for: developing instructional objectives, identifying and selecting appropriate instructional strategies, sequencing instructional content, identifying and selecting appropriate instructional media, and designing performance evaluation tools. It is always done in the context of a specific job. It facilitates training program design by providing a description of the fundamental elements of a job.

task selection model

A model used to apply statistically valid task selection models to identify critical individual tasks. There are a variety of models available for use. Some examples of task selection models are:
  • Difficulty-importance-frequency model. An individual critical task selection model that uses difficulty, importance, and frequency factors.
  • Eight-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that uses percent performing, percent time spent performing, consequence of inadequate performance, task delay tolerance, frequency of performance, task learning difficulty, probability of deficient performance, and immediacy of performance.
  • Four-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that uses percent performance, and task learning difficulty.
  • Training Emphasis (TE) model. An individual critical task selection model that uses the training emphasis factor to determine if a task is critical or not. The TE factor is collected from supervisors of job holders. It reflects how much emphasis the task should be given in training for a specific task.

teaching point

The smallest increment of information to which a learner may be expected to respond; a statement of fact or a procedural step in the performance of a task; the precise information you want a learner to know or respond to.

terminal behavior

The behavior or performance level that a learner is to demonstrate after the learning experience. The performance level is normally spelled out in the terminal learning objective.

terminal learning objective

Prescription of the conditions, behavior (action), and standard of task performance for the training setting. A learning objective at the highest level of learning (SKA) appropriate to the human performance requirements a student will accomplish when successfully completing instruction.


A device or technique used to measure the performance, skill level, and/or knowledge of a learner on a specific task or subject matter. It usually involves quantification of results — a number that represents an ability or characteristic of the person being tested.

test fidelity

The degree of exactness with which a test resembles the actual task performed. The closer the resemblance , the higher the fidelity of the test.

test item analysis

Testing the test to determine its effectiveness. The process of evaluating single test items by any of several methods. This usually involves the determination of how well an individual item separates examinees, its relative difficulty value, and its correlation with some criterion of measurement.


The basic organizational unit of instruction covering one or more closely related learning objectives.

topical outline

An outline of the topics to be included in the instructor guide. It provides course learning objectives, a listing of part, section, and topic titles and statements of rationale to explain or justify the training. It is used by the curriculum designer to develop the instructor guides.


A person who directs the growth of learners by making them qualified or proficient in a skill or task. Uses coaching, instructing, and facilitating techniques to accomplish the learning objectives.


Learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job.

training aid

An item to enhance training. May include charts, slides, and schematics. Often called a performance aid.

training concept

A summary describing how the required training is to be accomplished in terms of type of training, learning activities and exercises, environment, presentation techniques, media, pipeline, location, and other considerations.

transfer of training

The ability of persons to effectively apply to the job the knowledge and skills they gain in dissimilar learning situation. Also, the learning in one situation that facilitates learning (and therefore performance) in subsequent similar situations.


An instructional program that presents new information to the student efficiently and provides practice exercises based on that information. A lesson design used to teach a concept. Interactive instruction that asks questions based on the information presented, requests student responses, and evaluates student responses. It is self-paced, accommodates a variety of users, and generally involves some questioning, branching, and options for review.